Food Safety Practices for the Summer Season
by Don Drake, Connelly Law Offices, Ltd.
As the Independence Day holiday approaches and the summer heat descends upon the Northeast, tens of thousands will be making their way to beaches and picnic locations, and with this activity comes the dangers of food-borne illnesses from improperly stored and prepared food. But there may be another risk that many do not realize exists before the food is even readied - unwashed reusable bags. We want to repeat this blog which we published last spring about the importance of maintaining reusable grocery bags.
As most of us are aware, in many areas of southern New England, plastic sacks used to bag groceries have been eliminated in favor of environmentally friendly paper sacks or reusable totes. But as with anything used to transport food, reusable bags require cleaning and sanitization to remain safe.
Medical researchers report that if reusable bags are not washed thoroughly on a regular basis, there will be a buildup of bacteria, yeast, mold, and coliforms that could result in a health hazard. And although younger people may be able to fight off some of these illnesses, older individuals, especially those with compromised immune systems may become deathly ill.
"We certainly are not implying that people should not use these bags," said certified elder law Attorney RJ Connelly III. "We urge everyone to think about the environment and the dangers of the types of plastics used in bags, however as the use of reusable totes increases, we just need to be aware that they need to be maintained properly."
A Study of Reusable Bags In a study done by Canadian researcher Dr. Richard Summerbell in Toronto, he collected forty-nine “used” reusable bags to test for any potential viral health hazards they may have contained and if they could be a source of disease transmission. What he found was startling.
Sixty-four percent had levels of bacteria.
Thirty percent had elevated E. coli counts.
Twenty-four percent indicated the presence of mold.
Twenty percent were positive for the presence of yeast.
Twelve percent had dangerous levels of coliform.
The study concluded that reusable bags can be an “active microbial habitat and a breeding ground for bacteria, yeast, and coliforms”. The study also concluded that the presence of yeast and mold was a major concern for those with compromised immune systems, such as the elderly or those with HIV or undergoing cancer treatments. In this study, it was also concluded that even washing these bags may not be effective the more they are used and should be replaced on a regular basis.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that each year, one out of six Americans (48 million people) get sick from these foodborne illnesses. Of this group, 128,000 end up in the hospital, and some three thousand will die with the elder population appearing to be the most at risk of hospitalization and death.
Now, you may be asking, just how do these researchers know that reusable bags are responsible for some of these illnesses? Could it be poor hygiene habits or improper storage of food that could be the problem? And those are perfectly reasonable questions, however, there is also some research to back up these statements, and for that, we go to San Francisco.
The San Francisco Study The “City by the Bay” was the first major authority to enact a ban on plastic bags over a decade ago. After medical professionals reported an increase in the number of bacterial illnesses related to food showing up in emergency rooms, a study was done, and a report was issued entitled “Grocery Bag Bans and Foodborne Illness”.
In this study, the authors found that foodborne-related illnesses that resulted in death increased by a whopping forty-six percent after the plastic bag ban was put into place. In addition, the numbers from emergency rooms in the area showed an increase of thirty-four percent where E. Coli was identified as being responsible for the illness.
The authors further stated that the true correlation between banning plastic bags and foodborne illness cannot be fully known because many people suffered the illnesses without seeking medical treatment. They also wrote that similar increases in these illnesses have been seen in other areas where the plastic bag ban is in effect.
There are also other long-term consequences of foodborne illnesses. In a published article entitled, “The Long-Term Health Outcomes of Selected Foodborne Pathogens”, the author discussed the potential lifelong complications of some foodborne illnesses, especially among seniors. These complications included kidney failure, paralysis, seizures, hearing/visual impairments, and brain damage.
The Norovirus and Seniors
Another virus that loves reusable bags is the Norovirus. Most of us have heard about this dreaded illness due to the multiple cruise ships that have been affected by this bug which forced the companies who operated the ships to cut short the trips and return to port for medical treatment of the passengers. For most people, a bout with norovirus results in two or three very miserable days spent close to the bathroom. But for seniors, norovirus illness can be serious, and even fatal.
For the elderly who catch norovirus, symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, and nausea. They may or may not experience headaches, body aches, or a slight fever. Norovirus tends to come on quite suddenly. One moment you’re feeling fine and the next you’re in the bathroom wondering what you ate that is causing such a digestive system disruption. Symptoms last around one to two days, but the virus will continue to be contagious for up to two weeks after.
Norovirus is extremely contagious and spreads rapidly in closed areas such as cruise ships, senior centers, nursing facilities, and even hospitals. The major effect on seniors is severe dehydration and if such an illness occurs in the heat of summer, the problem is compounded.
How have reusable bags been implicated in the spread of norovirus? This lesson comes from a girls' soccer team in Oregon a decade ago as they became quite ill while traveling for a weekend tournament. When family members made inquiries into the cause of the sickness, Oregon’s Public Health investigators were able to track down and confirm that the norovirus was transmitted through a reusable shopping bag – something that was considered to be nearly impossible up to that time.
Following this incident, Dr. Charles Garba, a researcher who followed the transmission of such pathogens in the environment, stated, “The latest outbreak of norovirus reinforces the research we have conducted about the propensity of reusable grocery bags to act as hosts for dangerous foodborne bacteria and viruses. In reality, reusable bags are likely at fault much more often than we realize: cases often go unreported and uninvestigated”.
Dr. Garba continued, “The cause of roughly seventy percent of foodborne illness cases, the norovirus, spreads very easily and symptoms include projectile vomiting and severe diarrhea. It can have such sweeping consequences as school and emergency room closures. This incident should serve as a warning bell - permitting shoppers to bring unwashed reusable bags into grocery and retail stores not only poses a health risk to baggers but also to the next shoppers in the checkout line".